madison smith Reflux nephropathy from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia jump to: navigation, search     reflux nephropathy classification and external resources icd-9 593. 73 diseasesdb 11209 medlineplus 000459 emedicine radio/597 reflux nephropathy, rn is a term applied when small and scarred kidneys (chronic pyelonephritis, cpn) are associated with vesico-ureteric reflux (vur). Cpn being the most common cause, there are other causes including analgesic nephropathy and obstructive injury. Scarring is essential in developing rn and occurs almost during the first five years of life. The end results of rn are hypertension, proteinuria, crf and eventually esrd, end stage renal disease. The term was introduced in 1973. [1] [2] contents 1 diagnosis 2 incidence/prevalence 3 treatment 4 references [edit] diagnosis it is diagnosed by micturating cystography, scarring can of course be demonstrated by ultrasound or dmsa. [edit] incidence/prevalence there is a genetic predisposition, first-degree relatives have a great increase in the chance of vur. The gene frequency is estimated to be 1:600. The american academy of pediatrics recommends that children from 2 to 24 months presenting with a uti should be investigated for vur. [ citation needed ] [edit] treatment the aim of treatment is to reduce renal scarring. Those children with grade ii or worse should receive low dose prophylactic antibiotics (nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, cefalexin in those with crf). Hypertension should be managed with ace inhibitor or arbs. Other treatment modalities include surgery (endoscopic injection of collagen behind the intra-vesical ureter, ureteric re-implantation or lengthening of the submucosal ureteric tunnel) which has its protagonists. cheap viagra viagra for sale cheap viagra online cheap generic viagra generic viagra online buy cheap viagra buy generic viagra buy generic viagra cheap viagra http://floridalighttacklecharters.com/thq-cheap-viagra-rp/ [edit] references ^ dillon mj, goonasekera cd (december 1998). "reflux nephropathy". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 9 (12): 2377–83. Pmid 9848795.   ^ bailey rr (1973). "the relationship of vesico-ureteric reflux to urinary tract infection and chronic pyelonephritis-reflux nephropathy". Clin. Nephrol. 1 (3): 132–41. Pmid 4783715.   v t e urinary system â· pathology â· urologic disease / uropathy (n00–n39, 580–599) abdominal nephropathy/ (nephritis+ nephrosis) glomerulopathy/ glomerulitis/ (glomerulonephritis+ glomerulonephrosis) primarily nephrotic non-proliferative minimal change â· focal segmental â· membranous proliferative mesangial proliferative â· endocapillary proliferative membranoproliferative/mesangiocapillary by condition diabetic â· amyloidosis primarily nephritic, rpg type i rpg/type ii hypersensitivity goodpasture's syndrome type ii rpg/type iii hypersensit.
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